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The number of collision avoidance installations at operations around the world is growing daily. Collision avoidance systems are no longer a luxury as mines face higher productivity targets and a lower tolerance for accidents. Countries around the world, including the United States, India, and South Africa are in various stages of implementing legislation that will go as far as legally requiring the implementation of collision avoidance in mining.
One of the major limitations in the development of collision avoidance systems has been their reliance on GPS or GNSS technology. Typically, these systems have an accuracy of around 2 to 5 meters on a given mine surface. This means two vehicles can have a relative position error (RPE) of 4-10 meters (contrary to popular belief, these errors add up and do not cancel each other out).